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Copper electrowinning is a critical process in the mining and metallurgy industry, essential for producing high-purity copper. This electrochemical method relies on specialized power supplies to extract pure copper from solution. Let's explore the cutting-edge technologies driving modern copper electrowinning operations, focusing on rectifier systems and power supply solutions that are revolutionizing the industry.


Understanding Copper Electrowinning

Copper electrowinning involves passing an electric current through an electrolyte solution containing dissolved copper ions. This current causes the copper ions to deposit onto cathodes, forming pure copper metal. The efficiency and effectiveness of this process heavily depend on the quality and control of the electrical power supplied.


DC Power Supplies: The Core of Copper Recovery

DC power supplies are the heart of copper electrowinning, converting alternating current (AC) from the grid into the direct current (DC) needed for the process. Key aspects include:

  • Precise current density control
  • Voltage stability
  • Ripple control
  • Energy efficiency

These factors directly impact the purity and yield of the recovered copper.


Rectifiers for Copper Electrowinning

DC rectifiers for copper recovery represent a significant advancement in electrowinning technology. These integrated systems combine a transformer and a rectifier in a single unit, offering several advantages:

  • Improved efficiency
  • Smaller footprint
  • Simplified maintenance
  • Enhanced control

The evolution of rectifier technology has played a crucial role in enhancing the efficiency and productivity of copper recovery operations worldwide.


SCR Thyristor Rectifiers in Copper Electrowinning

SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) thyristor-based rectifiers have long been a staple in copper electrowinning power supplies. These robust devices offer:

  • High power handling capability
  • Reliable operation in harsh industrial environments
  • Relatively low cost per kW of power output
  • However, SCR thyristor rectifiers have some limitations, including:
  • Lower efficiency compared to newer technologies
  • Higher harmonic distortion
  • Slower response to load changes

Despite these drawbacks, SCR thyristor rectifiers remain widely used in many copper electrowinning facilities due to their proven reliability and cost-effectiveness for high-power applications.


IGBT Switch Mode Rectifiers: The Future of Copper Electrowinning

IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) switch mode rectifiers are gaining traction in the copper electrowinning industry. These modern power supplies offer several advantages over conventional thyristor-controlled rectifiers:

  • Higher energy efficiency (up to 95%)
  • Improved power factor
  • Reduced harmonic distortion
  • More precise current control
  • Faster response times

The adoption of IGBT switch mode technology in copper electrowinning rectifier systems is helping mining operations reduce energy costs, improve overall process efficiency, and minimize environmental impact.


Choosing the Right Power Supply for Copper Electrowinning

When selecting power supplies for copper electrowinning, several factors must be considered:

  • Current capacity and voltage range
  • Efficiency and power factor
  • Reliability and maintenance requirements
  • Control systems and monitoring capabilities
  • Environmental conditions at the site
  • Scalability and modularity
  • Integration with existing infrastructure

By carefully evaluating these aspects, operators can choose the most suitable rectifier system for their specific copper recovery needs, balancing performance, efficiency, and long-term cost-effectiveness.


Innovations in Copper Electrowinning Rectifier Systems

The field of copper electrowinning is constantly evolving, with ongoing research and development aimed at improving power supply technologies. Recent innovations include:

  • Advanced control algorithms
  • Internet of Things (IoT) integration
  • Hybrid power systems combining SCR and IGBT technologies
  • Energy recovery systems
  • Smart grid integration

These innovations are pushing the boundaries of what's possible in copper electrowinning, driving improvements in efficiency, productivity, and sustainability.


Impact of Advanced Rectifier Systems on Copper Production

The adoption of state-of-the-art copper electrowinning rectifier systems has far-reaching implications for the mining and metallurgy industry:

  • Increased production capacity
  • Improved product quality
  • Reduced environmental footprint
  • Enhanced operational flexibility
  • Long-term cost savings


Comparing SCR Thyristor and IGBT Switch Mode Technologies

Copper Electrowinning Rectifiers - Advint Incorporated


Conclusion: The Future of Copper Electrowinning Power Supplies

As global demand for copper continues to grow, driven by industries such as renewable energy and electric vehicles, efficient electrowinning processes become increasingly important. Advanced copper electrowinning rectifier systems, including SCR thyristor and IGBT switch mode technologies, are playing a crucial role in maximizing recovery rates and minimizing energy consumption.

By investing in state-of-the-art power supplies for copper electrowinning, mining operations can improve their productivity, reduce costs, and contribute to more sustainable metal production practices. The ongoing evolution of rectifier technologies promises to further enhance the efficiency and environmental performance of copper electrowinning processes.

As the industry moves forward, collaboration between mining companies, equipment manufacturers, and research institutions will be key to driving innovation in copper electrowinning rectifier systems. By continuing to push the boundaries of what's possible in power supply technology, we can look forward to a future where copper recovery is not only more efficient but also more sustainable and environmentally responsible.

The choice between SCR thyristor and IGBT switch mode rectifiers will depend on specific project requirements, with a trend towards increased adoption of IGBT technology for its superior efficiency and control capabilities. However, SCR systems are likely to remain relevant, especially in high-power applications where their robustness and cost-effectiveness are valued.

Ultimately, the future of copper electrowinning lies in optimized power supply solutions that combine the best aspects of various technologies, tailored to meet the unique needs of each operation while maximizing efficiency and minimizing environmental impact.

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Are you seeking innovative solutions to enhance your anodizing process while reducing energy consumption? Look no further than pulse anodizing – a cutting-edge technique that promises to transform your operations.

In this comprehensive guide, we'll delve into the intricacies of pulse anodizing, exploring its techniques, benefits, and practical implementation strategies.


Advint's Supply Chain Power Supply: Unlocking Precision and Flexibility

At the heart of pulse anodizing lies Advint's Supply Chain Power Supply, a state-of-the-art system designed to deliver unparalleled control and versatility.


This advanced power supply boasts an array of impressive features:

Programmable Control Interface: Offering precision and flexibility, this interface allows you to fine-tune your anodizing process with ease.


Regulation Modes: Encompassing constant current, constant voltage, and cross-over modes, ensuring optimal performance across various applications.


Low Frequency Pulse (LFP) Output: Generating DC to 200 Hz pulses with a minimum pulse width of 4 ms ON and 1 ms OFF, enabling precise control over the anodizing process.


Connectivity: Equipped with an RS485 serial port and USB port, facilitating seamless host control and integration.


Forced Air Cooling System: Ensuring optimal performance through efficient cooling mechanisms.


With performance specifications that include line and load regulation within +/- 1% of the setting or 0.1% of the maximum rating, digital meter accuracy of +/- 1% plus the least significant digit (L.S.D.), temperature stability of 0.2% after a 15-minute warm-up, and ripple less than 1% RMS of the maximum output voltage, Advint's Supply Chain Power Supply delivers uncompromising quality and reliability.


Pulse Anodizing in Existing Anodizing Lines: Maximizing Efficiency

Implementing pulse anodizing in your existing anodizing lines can yield significant energy savings and process improvements. 


Here are some key considerations:

Energy Efficiency: Pulse anodizing has the potential to reduce energy consumption by at least 30%, contributing to cost savings and environmental sustainability.


Baseline Analysis: Establish a comprehensive understanding of your current energy consumption and process parameters to identify areas for optimization.


System Upgrades: Upgrade cooling systems and busbars to accommodate higher current densities, ensuring seamless integration of pulse anodizing technology.


Energy Calculations: Conduct thorough energy calculations, comparing conventional and pulse anodizing processes, to quantify potential savings and justify the investment.


Mastering Pulse Anodizing Parameters

To harness the full potential of pulse anodizing, it's crucial to understand and optimize the key parameters:


Higher Current Density: By leveraging higher current densities, pulse anodizing reduces overall process time, enhancing efficiency and productivity.


Flexible Conditions: Pulse anodizing allows you to alternate between two direct current values, enabling precise control over the anodizing process.


Example Parameters: Typical parameters include high and low voltage levels, as well as their respective current densities, tailored to your specific requirements.


First Experiments: Paving the Way for Success

As with any new technology, pulse anodizing requires careful experimentation and optimization. Initial trials conducted with pulsating current, and voltage have revealed challenges, such as addressing burning issues during current-controlled experiments. By overcoming these hurdles through meticulous testing and adjustment, manufacturers can unlock the full potential of pulse anodizing.


Theoretical Introduction to Pulse Anodizing: Unraveling the Science

To truly appreciate the power of pulse anodizing, it's essential to understand the underlying theoretical principles:


Alternating Voltage/Current: By alternating between high and low voltage or current levels, pulse anodizing optimizes the anodizing process, enhancing efficiency and quality.


Barrier Layer Formation: The barrier layer formation adjusts dynamically to the applied voltages, impacting the oxide layer formation and overall anodizing process.


Recovery Period: During the low voltage or current phase, a recovery period allows for chemical dissolution, reducing the barrier layer thickness and enabling higher current densities.


Influencing Factors: Factors such as alloy composition, electrolyte concentration, and temperature play crucial roles in determining the effectiveness of pulse anodizing.

Pulse & Periodic Reverse Current Anodizing DC Rectifiers

Process Advantages: Efficiency, Customization, and Sustainability

Pulse anodizing offers a multitude of advantages that set it apart from conventional anodizing methods:


Efficiency: By leveraging higher current densities and optimized processes, pulse anodizing delivers superior efficiency, reducing processing time and increasing productivity.


Customization: With the ability to customize pulse patterns, manufacturers can tailor the anodizing process to meet the specific requirements of different alloys, ensuring consistent and high-quality results.


Sustainability: By significantly reducing energy consumption, pulse anodizing contributes to environmental sustainability, aligning with modern manufacturing practices and corporate social responsibility initiatives.


Embrace the Future of Anodizing with Pulse Anodizing

Pulse anodizing stands as a game-changer in the world of anodizing, offering unparalleled efficiency, flexibility, and sustainability.

By understanding and implementing the techniques outlined in this guide, manufacturers can achieve superior results, reduce energy consumption, and stay ahead of the curve in an increasingly competitive and environmentally conscious market.


Transform your anodizing process today with pulse anodizing – where innovation meets efficiency, and sustainability becomes a driving force for success. 

For more detailed insights, technical specifications, and personalized solutions, consult with Advint's knowledgeable representatives and unlock the full potential of state-of-the-art anodizing technology.

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In metal finishing applications such as electroplating, anodizing, and electropolishing, the use of a precise and consistent power source is crucial for achieving high-quality results. The selection of the appropriate power source depends on several factors, including efficiency, reliability, and consistency of output. Two commonly used options are Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch mode rectifiers and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) thyristor rectifiers. This paper aims to discuss the benefits and limitations of both options and the importance of automation in metal finishing processes.


IGBT Switch Mode Rectifiers

IGBT switch mode rectifiers are renowned for their high efficiency, rapid response time, and precise programming capabilities, which make them ideal for automated processes. They employ a high frequency switching mechanism to convert AC power to DC power, resulting in a smooth DC output. This smooth output is essential in metal finishing processes that require consistent results. The precise programming capabilities of IGBT switch mode rectifiers allow for the automation of processes, which improves the accuracy and consistency of the output. This feature is especially beneficial in processes that require high precision and consistency, such as electroplating.


IGBT switch mode rectifiers possess a compact footprint and low maintenance requirements, resulting in cost savings in the long run. Their high efficiency and rapid response time reduce power consumption, which also leads to cost savings. Automation of the process using IGBT switch mode rectifiers can further improve efficiency and reduce labor costs. These features make IGBT switch mode rectifiers a highly sought-after choice in many industries.


SCR Thyristor Rectifiers

Industry has used SCR thyristor rectifiers in electroplating applications for decades because of their high reliability and robustness. They offer a stable DC output, which is crucial in metal finishing processes where consistency is key. We achieve this stability using a thyristor device that can control the flow of electricity. The SCR thyristor rectifiers' robustness makes them suitable for harsh environments, such as those found in industrial settings.


SCR thyristor rectifiers- Advint Incorporated

However, SCR thyristor rectifiers exhibit lower efficiency when compared to IGBT switch mode rectifiers, resulting in higher power consumption and operating costs. This inefficiency is because SCR thyristor rectifiers use a linear voltage regulation mechanism, which leads to significant power losses. Additionally, their response time is slower than that of IGBT switch mode rectifiers, making them less suitable for processes that require high precision and rapid response time.


Selection of Power Source

The selection between IGBT switch mode rectifiers and SCR thyristor rectifiers ultimately depends on the specific requirements of the metal finishing process at hand. While both have their advantages and disadvantages, it is essential to evaluate the functions and capabilities of each technology to determine the optimal fit.


If the metal finishing process requires high precision and consistency, IGBT switch mode rectifiers are often the optimal choice because they offer superior accuracy and consistency, higher efficiency, and lower power consumption than SCR thyristor rectifiers. However, if the process involves harsh environments and requires a stable DC output, SCR thyristor rectifiers may be the better choice. The selection of the appropriate power source depends on the specific needs of the process, and the factors mentioned above should be considered when making this decision.


Importance of Automation in Metal Finishing Processes

The utilization of automation can provide several benefits in metal finishing processes, including consistent output, reduced labor costs, and increased efficiency. Ampere hour reading and the application of current during electrolysis are crucial capabilities that can be automated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the process. Automating the metal finishing process using IGBT switch mode rectifiers is especially beneficial because of their precise programming capabilities.

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Advint is a well-established and reputable player in the North American rectifier procurement market. Many know the company for its expertise in fundamentals, quality, technology, and supply chain, which have contributed significantly to its success in the industry. In this article, we will delve into each of Advint's strengths and explain how they have helped the company establish itself as a reliable supplier of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) or silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) technology for electrolytic applications.



Electrolytic applications are complex processes that require careful consideration of various factors, including the conductivity and mobility of ions and the principles of Ohm's law. Advint's expertise in rectifier technology and electrochemistry enables the company to provide informed recommendations to its customers. The company's knowledge of rectifier technology helps customers select the most suitable IGBT or SCR technology for their specific needs, leading to increased productivity, reduced energy consumption, and improved overall performance. Advint's expertise is mainly valuable in electrolytic applications, where proper technology selection can make a significant difference in performance in processes such as electrolysis, electroplating, anodizing, electrowinning, and e-coat.



Advint partners with three leading rectifier manufacturers that offer certified components with automation and data integration features.

However, what sets Advint apart is its meticulous workmanship and quality system for electrolysis, hydrogenation, electroplating, and anodizing power supplies. The company's commitment to quality ensures that its rectifiers are durable and perform well under demanding conditions. This is important in electrolytic applications, where harsh conditions such as high temperatures and corrosive materials can cause equipment to fail prematurely.



Advint's expertise in electrolysis, and electricity is a critical component of its success. The company's expertise enables it to help customers achieve the best possible performance from their rectifiers. Advint can help customers select the most appropriate IGBT or SCR technology based on the specific requirements of their electrolytic applications. Besides, the company's expertise in technology allows it to develop custom solutions for its customers. Each customer's needs are unique, and Advint can work with them to develop customized solutions that meet their specific needs.


IGBT or SCR technology- Advint Incorporated

Supply Chain

Advint prioritizes the supply chain, customs clearance, and transportation, offering high-quality rectifiers at competitive prices with prompt delivery. The company's initial investment in artificial intelligence software and digital e-commerce makes the buying process convenient for customers. Advint also offers a rebate for advisory services clients who purchase rectifiers, further enhancing its customer service. This commitment to the supply chain and customer service ensures that customers receive their rectifiers when they need them.



Advint's strengths in the fundamentals, quality, technology, and supply chain have positioned it as a leading provider of technological advantages and cost savings in the rectifier market. The company's commitment to helping customers achieve the best possible performance from their rectifiers has helped establish its reputation as a reliable supplier of IGBT or SCR technology for electrolytic applications. If you need a reliable supplier of high-quality rectifiers for electrolytic applications, Advint is an excellent choice. The company's expertise in fundamentals, quality, technology, and supply chain ensures that customers receive the best possible products and service. Advint's commitment to its customers has helped it build a strong reputation in the industry, and the team poise to continue its success for years to come.

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Students from USA, Middle East, and Asia had rated 100% satisfaction with Advint’s Online Industrial Electroplating Training course.

We feel good about the progress made in placing Advint’s online training as the best and unrivaled source in the global industry.

Go To Training Page


We write this paper to explain why this study is the most comprehensive and all-encompassing course in the market and why early career professionals, both novice and ardent, see value and rate highly.

  1. The course explains electrochemistry, processing, physical characterization, engineering, automation, methodology, and management.
  2. We use Adobe Illustrator graphics to explain electrolysis.
  3. Covers basic and advanced concepts.
  4. Written and instructed by practiced manufacturing professional with over thirty years of experience.
  5. We give access to students a 172-page E-book and present with over 350 pages of high-quality MS PowerPoint slides.
  6. We used one word instead of two for succinct communication, where possible.
  7. The course is interactive and engaging, and not limited by time.
  8. It is not driven by revenue, but value.

We offer custom training courses to aerospace and automotive operating staff on an as need basis.


Click the PDF link to refer to recent endorsements, and breakdown of students by region and qualification.




Our course content drives the growth. The value we offer and the students’ recognition makes us improve the content and presentation at every opportunity. It will be an amiss, if we don’t mention about our plating training participants. Advint is fortunate to have the most dedicated people attend the course with an intent of making a difference. We owe high approval rate to them!


Of course, higher satisfaction increases our responsibility. The responsibility to make the next cohort of students experience better. We commit Advint to do just that!


Behind the scenes, work is in progress to offer new cohort of student’s latest digital technology experience.

Overall, Advint’s Online Industrial Electroplating Training course is on the path to become the premium source of education in the global industry.


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This paper explains Advint’s exclusivity from our competitors to the North American rectifier procurement agents.

Our rectifier sales vertical currently offers technological lead with substantial cost edge from peers, and we position us for the future of rectifier applications.


In the crowded rectifiers sales market, Advint distinguishes its leadership in the fundamentals, quality, technology and supply chain. Market surplus inspires customers to make wise choice by parsing quality and price benefit, and other technical factors.


Electrolysis is DC power supply’s primary use. We begin by understanding the requirements of electrolysis and electricity. Other value adds are electrical and electronic necessities, automation, big data integration features and logistics. We made sales and customer services with a nimble format covering specifications checks, electrical certification and inspection label needs, transportation and product warranty.



Each customer's need is different. On electrolytic applications, due consideration of electrolyte conductivity and ionic mobility (and Ohm’s law) is important. We offer service to customers who want to go make a choice between insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR).


Advint’s representative encourages considering ripple and maximum output from DC amperes. On productivity, be strategic on DC output amps, largest and smallest parts produced at a time, and the ripple tolerance based on electrolyte and electrode tolerance. An unsuitable choice can increase ripple, drive electricity consumption, and cripple productivity in the long-term.



Advint has partnered with a leading rectifier. The supplier’s PRO series models meet UL and CSA’s inspection label standards. Their model’s MODBUS protocol and RS 485 communication enable automation and data integration of many parameters. Of course, most manufacturers offer similar features with an exception of Advint’s data integration feature. The most important distinction is the workmanship and rigorous quality system from the team on electrolysis, hydrogenation, electroplating and anodizing power supplies.


DC Rectifier


Supply Chain

We understand the customer wants great price and quality, with prompt delivery on the promised date. This is what we offer, and we do that with an attention on supply chain, customs clearance and transportation.



Advint’s pivotal lead is our understanding of electrolysis and electricity.


We took simple but often discounted procurement process steps. Investments in artificial intelligence software to analyze disparate data and on digital ecommerce to make the buying process easy for our new and long-term customers are in progress. Advint offers a rebate for advisory services clients when they buy rectifiers.


Our rectifier sales vertical currently offers technological lead with substantial cost edge from peers, and we position us for the future of rectifier applications.


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Achieve a profound change in electroplating process control by asking inquisitive questions. Use emotional intelligence with curiosity, be intuitive, lay emphasis on quality over cost, and maximize human and automation potentials.  


Who does not want to advance their process performance? If we can improve the process without adding cost it is a windfall, correct? Maximizing automation of power supplies on electroplating, anodizing and electropolishing metal finishing applications is one such method. Automation helps process control. Above automation comes intuitive mind. Intuition is a derived from knowledge and experience. You ought to combine intuition with equipment capability. In this short paper we will review functions, capabilities and advantages of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch mode rectifier and silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR).



Einstein nurtured his intuition from his experience of working as a patent clerk while developing his theory of Special Relativity. His presence of mind and theoretical knowledge were instrumental in his brilliant work. Intuition and experience also played a significant role. Likewise, you can use your keen and meticulous observation skills, creativity, innovative mind, knowledge and experience to automate your plating and other metal finishing processes. Managing desires and possessing a non conforming mindset are nuts and bolts to achieve this trait.

Combine this attribute with knowledge in automation and on capabilities such as ampere hour reading and application of current during electrolysis for the finest results. Required capabilities for processes such as anodizing of aluminum, hexavalent or trivalent hard chrome plating, nickel and cadmium plating vary because of electrolytic conditions and electrode potentials.



Start with questions!

What are the automation opportunities?

Which option makes available the most benefit with less cost and complication?


Automating DC power supply is one of the best choices in an electrolytic process. An excellent choice on a rectifier allows the cathode to receive optimal current. Note, there is a difference between applied and received current. One can read previous articles in this page on current distribution, throwing and covering powers.


A rectifier with RS 485 and 4-20mA analog signal capability and ampere hour (AHR) meter can enable metering of process chemicals during electrolysis. Who doesn’t want consistent output quality? We must reduce variations within input variables to get the desired output quality. Among input variables, there are parameters which vary by electrolysis and others vary primarily because of drag in and drag out of chemicals. It is pertinent to account for both types of variables. Rectifier, PLC and metering system can be programmed ingeniously to realize this aim.


With power supplies, begin by choosing between IGBT switch mode or SCR thyristor DC rectifiers. Ripple factor, unit weight, voltage and amperage accuracy are better with the IGBT rectifier. Ripple is a measure of purity of DC output of a rectifier. Many electrolytic processes, especially precious metals plating like gold and silver plating, are sensitive to a higher ripple percentage. When a SCR rectifier is used at a lower amperage than the rated capacity of a rectifier, ripple is high. Whereas with IGBT rectifiers, ripple factor is consistent and independent of DC output voltage. Digital control allows increased longevity with less maintenance of rectifier and comes with a very high accuracy. When compared with SCR thyristor rectifiers, IGBT power supplies possess higher efficiency and power saving capability.


In a nutshell, by choosing IGBT rectifier you choose better technology, save space and power, improve accuracy resolution and accuracy, and negate the effect of ripple factor. Use of RS485 MODBUS protocol can integrate with programmable logic controller (PLC) and control current, dosing systems and enable trickle current mode at the start of the process.


An Idea in Brief



Achieve a profound change in electroplating process control by asking inquisitive questions. Use emotional intelligence with curiosity, be intuitive, lay emphasis on quality over cost, and maximize human and automation potentials. 

We can automate hoist, process sequences, filtration and dosing systems, and rectifiers technologies with this outlook. A splendid choice of DC power supply is important. Both IGBT and SCR rectifiers offer unique advantages depending on the electrolytic process. Aluminum and hydrogen electrolysis, electrowinning and electroforming requirements differ from that of electroplating, anodizing and electropolishing. We recommend considering your process requirements with the capabilities of IGBT and SCR rectifiers.

On precious metals plating, applications distinguish between applied and actual current. Due cognizance can affect the consistency of deposit thickness and the deposit characteristics. When sourcing a rectifier, consider buying from reputed a manufacturer who conducts active research and continuously improves on their design and functionality.


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On a metal finishing processing line, among many design factors, choosing a rectifier with correct technical specifications and capacity based on production capability is very important. Predicting a production capability on most lines on a long term, particularly for a job shop is tough.

However, a correct choice on the capacity of a rectifier and on technical specifications will turn errors to account on a process performance.


Besides specifications, cost of a rectifier, power consumption and automation capability are significant considerations for a meticulous procurer.


IGBT and SCR Rectifiers

There are two types of rectifiers - Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch mode and silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) thyristor. SCR rectifiers are suitable for high voltage and high ampere applications, but IGBT rectifiers possess higher efficiency, greater power factor, higher resolution, faster response time and constant ripple. Ripple matters in a plating application with an SCR rectifier and on precious metals plating.


DC rectifier Power supply


Using a rectifier at the lower end of its rated capacity affects the ripple factor. On some applications there will be a negative influence on current distribution and throwing power of the deposit. A few deposits are tolerant than others. Precious and other transition elements differ in this attribute. Much of them are because of price. At a sub optimal capacity combined with a poor specification, a rectifier can yield a deposit with defective morphology compromising adhesion and the physical characteristics.


Note: Ripple is not the only cause a compromise can occur on the morphology of a deposit. Among many other variables, Helmholtz electrical double layer effect has a substantial effect on the morphology with the continuity of the deposit.


Other than ripple, there are cost impacts. A client of Advint, about 3 years back, purchased a 25,000 amperes rectifier. On most loads they had applied ~ 10,000 amps and seldom they applied 15,000 amperes. And the applicator does not foresee applying 20, 000 amperes within the next few years. The tank volume and the rack capability do not support the calculation. In hindsight, the applicator could have saved by considering a lower ampere rectifier (written with the Applicator’s consent).


On high ampere applications, power consumption is an important factor. When the distance between shunt and electrode terminals are higher, power consumption (resistivity) and cost is high.


Automation and Digital Control

On automatic applications, metal finishing industry uses human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) capabilities for a long time. These interfaces are useful for current density calculations, plating time, ampere hour (AHR) control and chemical metering or dosing system, though the options are limitless. All chemical variables in a process are not consumed by electrolysis, rather a few follows adsorption mechanism. On these cases the use of PLC’s ladder logic, count down or count up timer will help. The MODBUS RS 485 serial communication protocol is the standard now to monitor and control the system. When a rectifier possesses higher end capability, and we maximize utilization even on a manual application, an applicator can see an advantage in labour cost and process control.


Ensuring we do not overload a rectifier, can extend the life of the rectifier. A periodic preventative maintenance program will support the same cause.


A Brief Idea

This short paper has brought to light the advantages of IGBT rectifier and the use of HMI/PLC interfaces with MODBUS RS 485 serial communication protocol.

Due diligence on specifications and productivity planning reduces fixed and marginal costs, improves the quality and consistency of the coating (electroplating deposit and anodized layer) processes.



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Venkat Raja
July 22, 2024
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Charles G Graham
July 7, 2024
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